On Wednesday at the NTPRS conference, our workshop presenter, the fabulous Jason Fritze, talked to us about Personalized Questions and Answers (PQA). PQA involves asking students a series of questions to get them to talk about themselves and their interests in the second language (L2).
In many ways, PQA is simply a class discussion. That being said, it is VERY important that the questions being asked don’t require students to create too much output at first. In many comprehensible input (CI) classrooms, PQA relies heavily on Yes-No or Either-Or questions, especially in the beginning levels.
Let’s say, for example, that I want to find out what students like to do in their spare time. Here is how I would do my PQA:
- Use Yes-No questions in the L2 to establish maybe 2 or 3 activities that students like to do such as “Do you like to play basketball?” or “Do you like to watch TV?” or “Do you like to do homework?” I also make sure to ask students about themselves and about each other to expose students to first, second, and third person verbs.
- Once I have a few activities named, I can then move on to Either-Or questions like “Do you like to watch TV or do homework?” “Do you like to play basketball or watch TV?” I might also add a third or fourth activity to the Either-Or if asking about the previously mentioned activities are getting a bit stale. Once again, I make sure to ask students about themselves and about each other.
- Once we’ve done Yes-No and Either-Or questions, I can them start asking open-ended questions with an interrogative such as “What do you like to do?” or “Who likes to watch TV?” In my class, one of my student jobs is the Question Word Translator. After I say a question word in the L2, the Question Word Translator shouts out the English translation before I finish the question, kind of like this:
- Me: Qui…
- Question Word Translator: Who!
- Me: …aime le football?
In one of the workshops I went to on Day 4, presenter Lance Piantaggini mentioned that, after the teacher has gotten used to the PQA progression, s/he may want to vary that progression, because it may get predictable and stale. Lance also said that, in some languages (like Chinese and Latin), Either-Or questions might be easier than Yes-No, so he recommends starting with Either-Or questions in those situations. Lance also said that he may omit the Yes-No and Either-Or questions as the year progresses if he feels that his students are strong enough to skip straight to the interrogatives.
Jason Fritze acknowledged that it can be difficult to come up with good PQA questions spontaneously, so he recommends that teachers script out PQA questions ahead of time to use as reference. Jason said that he often takes five minutes of his planning period to script questions both as a guide to use during class but also to practice creating PQA questions. Lance Piantaggini said that he kept his question words posted in the back of the room so he could refer to them for inspiration if he does spontaneous PQA in class.
In many instances, the goal of the PQA is to use that student information to create a story using Storyasking techniques (Storyasking involves using questions to flesh out the details of a story by having students suggest details for the teacher to include in the narrative). Jason Fritze referred to this as “spinning the story.” So in the above example, finding out about someone who likes to watch TV but doesn’t like to do homework and someone else who likes to play basketball may lead to a story about a student who tried to do his/her homework as quickly as possible so s/he could watch America’s Got Talent, couldn’t find a pencil to do the homework, so s/he had to phone a friend to borrow one, but the friend wasn’t home because he was at a basketball game.
Many presenters acknowledge that being willing to let the story develop naturally involves the teacher being able to relinquish control of the class and trust the PQA-to-Class Story process. Jason Fritze, referencing the movie Frozen, told the class that we had to “…be like Elsa and let it go.” Von Ray, who led a workshop about improvisation in the CI classroom, echoed Jason’s words by telling us that we needed to “trust the process.” Both Jason and Von acknowledge that this may be very difficult for teachers (I have written about my own troubles with Storyasking in this post), so they recommend that teachers always have a back up story that they can use in case the student story falls flat or veers off into a direction that might be either inappropriate or impractical (The teacher can write his/her own backup story or purchase pre-written stories like these and these).
All the presenters who talked about PQA, Storyasking, and improvisation at the NTPRS 2018 conference agree that stories based on the students themselves are very powerful. They are compelling because they are about the students themselves. Since they are highly interesting, students are more likely to be engaged in the process, which ideally should lead to more language acquisition and proficiency gains. I for one plan to include lots of days where I use the PQA-to-Class Story process. I’ll let you know how it goes.