This past Monday and Tuesday I went to a two-day workshop with Tina Hargaden. Tina runs the group CI Liftoff and has taken the upcoming year off from teaching to travel around the US training teachers. I have been Facebook friends with Tina for a few years now and was excited that I finally got the chance to see her in action.
Tina is a French and Spanish teacher who uses a proficiency-based, comprehensible input (CI) approach in her classes. What sets her apart from other French and Spanish teacher trainers, however, is that she also has a background in teaching social studies, English to students of other languages (ESOL) and English language arts (ELA). This offers an interesting perspective on teaching a second language because she has incorporated the use of strategies from those fields in her second language classroom.
For me, the most valuable takeaway from the workshop was Tina’s lesson plan framework. I love the consistency and flexibility it provides. I anticipate that I will not have to agonize as much over my lesson planning once I adopt and adapt this lesson plan to my classroom needs.
Here is the framework Tina uses on a daily basis when planning a lesson.
1. Norming the class. During the first two or three minutes of the class, Tina tells students what the day’s objectives are (Example: “Okay class, today I’m going to tell you a story about something that happened to me when I was young. After we read and write about it, I will ask you some questions about it to make sure you understood it.”).
2. Reading workshop. With her background in ELA, it probably doesn’t surprise you to hear that Tina stresses literacy in her classes. In addition, if you’ve been reading this blog, you have already learned that reading is the most powerful way for students to acquire language, in both their first language (L1) and second language (L2). This five to ten minute segment is one of the first of two reading activities that students do in class on a daily basis. This block of time is when students do Free Voluntary Reading, where they can read practically anything in the L2. Other activities that Tina may do during this time include Book Talks, during which she may describe and recommend a book in her class library in the L2, whole-class reading (if she finds a short passage that she wants to share with them) or Volleyball Reading.
3. Guided Oral Input. This part of Tina’s lesson is the longest (14 minutes or so) because students need to receive comprehensible input (CI) in order to acquire language. Here is where she uses one of many strategies such as Storylistening, Storyasking, Movie Talk, Picture Talk, One Word Images, or Special Person Interviews to provide input to the class.
One strategy that was new to me that Tina modeled at her workshop is called a Narrative Input Chart, which she first heard about at a Project Glad training. In an ESOL class, it is a story-based activity used to teach academic language and concepts. For example, if the class is studying about the solar system, the academic content and vocabulary is embedded in a story about an extra-terrestrial traveling through the solar system looking for a new home. Below is an example of how a narrative input chart might be incorporated into an ESOL class.
Tina has modified this strategy for use in the second language classroom and has used it to complement L2 storytelling. My fabulous workshop partner Rachel (this is a different Rachel, not the one who introduced me to the Carlos Game)and I have plans to use this technique for history and cultural lessons in our classes.
4. Scaffolded Oral Review. This part of the lesson is about six minutes long, during which the teacher reviews whatever was done in the Guided Oral Input part of class. This can be pretty much any oral review activity, ranging from a quick question-and-answer session to a review game.
One strategy that was new to me is called Reading the Walls. The teacher reviews any visual created during the Guided Oral Input segment of class (Tina recommends doing this in a question-answer format for heightened engagement) and affixes large Post-Its with key terms on the visual as the class reviews, thus reinforcing those key terms.
5. Shared Writing. Together, the teacher and class write about what was discussed and reviewed during the Guided Oral Input and Scaffolded Oral Review segments of class. This activity should take about ten minutes or so. If you search for this technique online, you may find it referred to as “Write and Discuss.” When I do this in my class, I will often start a sentence in the L2 and ask students to finish it. If students are unable to finish it, I then may give them a choice to help them. Here are two examples of this in English.
Me: Today is…(I write the first two words and wait for students to call out a response)
Me: Today is Tuesday (I finish writing the sentence).
Me: Today is…(I write the first two words, wait for students to call out a response, but nobody finishes the sentence)
Me: Is today Monday or Tuesday?
Me: Today is Tuesday (I finish writing the sentence).
If you want to learn more about Write and Discuss, John Piazza does an excellent job explaining how to do this activity in this post.
6. Shared Reading. Once the writing is complete, the teacher reads the text out loud as the class translates. This takes about eight minutes. When she demonstrated this in class, Tina circled and translated any new words (she is not afraid to add some new words in the shared writing). In addition, she also took time during this segment of class it to discuss grammar as needed in pop-up grammar style. Tina often will often encourage students to share ideas about the language by asking “What can you teach the class?” This gives students a chance to examine the text and comment on language features.
7. Student application and assessment. This is the last segment of the class where Tina wraps everything up with some sort of formal or informal assessment. Depending on how she decides to assess, this may take about five to ten minutes.
This lesson plan is designed for a traditional 50-55 minute class. In my next post, I will describe how to modify this for a shorter or a longer class.