Adapting Tina’s Lesson Plan Framework

In my last post, I talked about Tina Hargaden’s lesson plan framework for a traditional 50-55 minute class. In this post, I’ll discuss how to adapt this framework for shorter or longer classes.

Tina’s traditional lesson plan framework is set up below. See my last post for in-depth explanation of these components.

  1. Norming the class (2-3 minutes)
  2. Reading Workshop (5-10 minutes)
  3. Guided Oral Input (14 minutes)
  4. Scaffolded Oral Review (6 minutes)
  5. Shared Writing (12 minutes)
  6. Shared Reading (6 minutes)
  7. Student Application and Assessment (3-5 minutes)

Teachers with shorter classes can adapt this framework by breaking it up over two days. Here’s Tina’s suggestion:

Day 1
1. Norming the class
2. Reading Workshop
3. Guided Oral Input
4. Scaffolded Oral Review (Very quickly)
5. Shared Writing
6. Student Application and Assessment (Very quickly)

Day 2
1. Norming the class
2. Reading Workshop
3. Scaffolded Oral Review (In depth)
4. Shared Reading (Of Shared Writing from Day 1)
5. Student Application and Assessment (in depth)

Teachers on a block schedule should follow the same framework as the original, 50-55 minute class but extend and/or repeat a few of the activities so they last a little longer and schedule some breaks in between (See this post for ideas about Brain Breaks). For example, Guided Oral Input in a 50-55 minute class might have a main idea and three details, but have a main idea and five details in a block class. So perhaps it might look something like this:

  1. Norming the class (2-3 minutes)
  2. Reading Workshop (5-10 minutes)
  3. Guided Oral Input, Part 1 (14 minutes)
  4. Scaffolded Oral Review (6 minutes)
  5. Guided Oral Input, Part 2 (14 minutes)
  6. Scaffolded Oral Review, Part 2 (6 minutes)
  7. Shared Writing (12 minutes)
  8. Shared Reading (6 minutes)
  9. Student Application and Assessment (3 to 5 minutes)

No matter what the length of class, Tina’s lesson framework is flexible enough to adapt to practically every class. I’m looking forward to implementing it in my own classes next week!



Two Days With Tina

This past Monday and Tuesday I went to a two-day workshop with Tina Hargaden. Tina runs the group CI Liftoff and has taken the upcoming year off from teaching to travel around the US training teachers. I have been Facebook friends with Tina for a few years now and was excited that I finally got the chance to see her in action.

Tina is a French and Spanish teacher who uses a proficiency-based, comprehensible input (CI) approach in her classes. What sets her apart from other French and Spanish teacher trainers, however, is that she also has a background in teaching social studies, English to students of other languages (ESOL) and English language arts (ELA). This offers an interesting perspective on teaching a second language because she has incorporated the use of strategies from those fields in her second language classroom.

For me, the most valuable takeaway from the workshop was Tina’s lesson plan framework. I love the consistency and flexibility it provides. I anticipate that I will not have to agonize as much over my lesson planning once I adopt and adapt this lesson plan to my classroom needs.

Here is the framework Tina uses on a daily basis when planning a lesson.

1. Norming the class. During the first two or three minutes of the class, Tina tells students what the day’s objectives are (Example: “Okay class, today I’m going to tell you a story about something that happened to me when I was young. After we read and write about it, I will ask you some questions about it to make sure you understood it.”).

2. Reading workshop. With her background in ELA, it probably doesn’t surprise you to hear that Tina stresses literacy in her classes. In addition, if you’ve been reading this blog, you have already learned that reading is the most powerful way for students to acquire language, in both their first language (L1) and second language (L2). This five to ten minute segment is one of the first of two reading activities that students do in class on a daily basis. This block of time is when students do Free Voluntary Reading, where they can read practically anything in the L2. Other activities that Tina may do during this time include Book Talks, during which she may describe and recommend a book in her class library in the L2, whole-class reading (if she finds a short passage that she wants to share with them) or Volleyball Reading.

3. Guided Oral Input. This part of Tina’s lesson is the longest (14 minutes or so) because students need to receive comprehensible input (CI) in order to acquire language. Here is where she uses one of many strategies such as Storylistening, Storyasking, Movie Talk, Picture Talk, One Word Images, or Special Person Interviews to provide input to the class.

One strategy that was new to me that Tina modeled at her workshop is called a Narrative Input Chart, which she first heard about at a Project Glad training. In an ESOL class, it is a story-based activity used to teach academic language and concepts. For example, if the class is studying about the solar system, the academic content and vocabulary is embedded in a story about an extra-terrestrial traveling through the solar system looking for a new home. Below is an example of how a narrative input chart might be incorporated into an ESOL class.

Tina has modified this strategy for use in the second language classroom and has used it to complement L2 storytelling. My fabulous workshop partner Rachel (this is a different Rachel, not the one who introduced me to the Carlos Game)and I have plans to use this technique for history and cultural lessons in our classes.

4. Scaffolded Oral Review. This part of the lesson is about six minutes long, during which the teacher reviews whatever was done in the Guided Oral Input part of class. This can be pretty much any oral review activity, ranging from a quick question-and-answer session to a review game.

One strategy that was new to me is called Reading the Walls. The teacher reviews any visual created during the Guided Oral Input segment of class (Tina recommends doing this in a question-answer format for heightened engagement) and affixes large Post-Its with key terms on the visual as the class reviews, thus reinforcing those key terms.

5. Shared Writing. Together, the teacher and class write about what was discussed and reviewed during the Guided Oral Input and Scaffolded Oral Review segments of class. This activity should take about ten minutes or so. If you search for this technique online, you may find it referred to as “Write and Discuss.” When I do this in my class, I will often start a sentence in the L2 and ask students to finish it. If students are unable to finish it, I then may give them a choice to help them. Here are two examples of this in English.

Me: Today is…(I write the first two words and wait for students to call out a response)

Student(s): Tuesday.

Me: Today is Tuesday (I finish writing the sentence).

or:

Me: Today is…(I write the first two words, wait for students to call out a response, but nobody finishes the sentence)

Me: Is today Monday or Tuesday?

Student(s): Tuesday.

Me: Today is Tuesday (I finish writing the sentence).

If you want to learn more about Write and Discuss, John Piazza does an excellent job explaining how to do this activity in this post.

6. Shared Reading. Once the writing is complete, the teacher reads the text out loud as the class translates. This takes about eight minutes. When she demonstrated this in class, Tina circled and translated any new words (she is not afraid to add some new words in the shared writing). In addition, she also took time during this segment of class it to discuss grammar as needed in pop-up grammar style. Tina often will often encourage students to share ideas about the language by asking “What can you teach the class?” This gives students a chance to examine the text and comment on language features.

7. Student application and assessment. This is the last segment of the class where Tina wraps everything up with some sort of formal or informal assessment. Depending on how she decides to assess, this may take about five to ten minutes.

This lesson plan is designed for a traditional 50-55 minute class. In my next post, I will describe how to modify this for a shorter or a longer class.

When You Absolutely Have to Teach Grammar

I recently met a Spanish teacher who is new to the area. He teaches at a private middle school and has been attending some interesting professional development this year, including Organic World Language (OWL) training and a proficiency institute organized by a local language association. His comment to me was that, although he has enjoyed learning new ideas at these workshops, he is unable to implement a lot of the new ideas he learns into his classes because the teachers at the high school that his students go on to attend expect that they will have a solid grammar foundation when they reach the second year of the language.

Sigh. I hear this over and over again. So many teachers who want to incorporate more proficiency-based and comprehensible input (CI) approaches in their classroom feel that they are unable to because of the demands placed on them to teach grammar. Of course, these teachers don’t want put their job in jeopardy, so many of them bow down to pressure and teach grammar explicitly, even though it doesn’t result in language acquisition (For further explanation of this, pick up a copy of Bill VanPatten’s book While We’re on The Topic). I am not in a situation like this but I am also not passing judgement, because as I said previously in this post, we all have to do what we need to do to keep our jobs.

That being said, with a little planning and creativity, you can find ways to teach the necessary grammar but still remain primarily CI or proficiency based. Below are a few ways you can do that.

Solution Number 1: Do CI and proficiency-based activities exclusively until the last few weeks of school, then switch and do explicit grammar for the remainder of the year. This is what Alina Filipescu does in her classroom. Read this post to find out more about how she makes sure students get to the next level with plenty of knowledge about verb conjugations in Spanish.

Solution Number 2: Have designated “Language Study Days.” This is something I first heard about from Tina Hargarden. She did a language study day every few weeks to fulfill district requirements (A colleague of mine who teaches Spanish also has days set aside for language study. She jokingly said that she calls them “Dinosaur Days” and wants to wear a Tyrannosaurus Rex costume in class for those lessons).

Solution Number 3: Alternate between CI or proficiency-based lesson weekly, biweekly, or monthly. This is similar to what Alina Filipescu does but breaks up the grammar study throughout the year. I tried this on and off for a few years but found that I preferred waiting until the end of the year to do all the grammar, kind of like what Alina does.

Solution Number 4: Assign students grammar study for homework. If you read this post and this post, you will see that I have written before about flipped classrooms, where teachers obligate students to learn a new concept for homework that the teacher then reviews the following day in class. If you check YouTube, you will find a lot of videos that explain different grammar topics in a second language, especially in Spanish. This year, I found videos on YouTube about different grammar topics and gave students worksheets to fill out while watching them. I kept all the worksheets together in a folder for each student for personal reference and then I shipped a copy up to the high school teacher so she could see the topics they had reviewed.

The bottom line is, you can have the best of both worlds, where you provide your students with plenty of comprehensible input and activities designed to further language proficiency but still squeeze in those necessary grammar topics. If you haven’t already, I hope you will consider giving it a try.

My Takeaways This Year

I have already started reflecting on what has worked for me this year and what I have learned about myself as a teacher and about second language (L2) students in general. These thoughts are in no particular order, and many of them echo things that I have already written about on this blog. Below are things that I have been thinking about recently.

1. Before teachers can begin to teach meaningfully, they must make sure to train their students to meet their expectations. As I have already talked about in this previous post, the main priority of all teachers should be to establish class norms, make expectations clear, and enforce discipline consistently. With high school students, this should typically take two or three weeks. As a rule of thumb, the younger the student, the longer it will take to train them. There are always exceptions to this rule, however, since every class is different. In addition, it is also good practice to retrain students after long weekends and vacation weeks.

2. While forced output is never acceptable, it is fine for a teacher to cold call students if the teacher is pretty sure that they know the answer. One of the biggest components of teaching with comprehensible input (CI) is understanding that obligating students to speak will not further proficiency. This is called forced output, and it is common in traditional, textbook-driven classes. As Dr. Stephen Krashen stated in his book Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, making students produce language when they are not ready to do so will raise the Affective Filter and hinder language acquisition.

While I strongly support this hypothesis, I started to notice that, in classes where I wasn’t randomly choosing students to answer questions, some of my students were beginning to disengage and lose focus. It is perfectly understandable. Students in a class who know that they may be cold called (that is, called on to answer a question for which s/he did not volunteer to answer) have to stay attentive in class because they know that they may have to answer a question involuntarily at any moment. But some students will become disengaged if they know that the teacher is not going to obligate them to participate.

3. Teachers can use authentic resources creatively at any level. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) supports using authentic resources in the world language classroom, but many teachers struggle with making those resources comprehensible for Novice students. It takes practice, but with appropriate scaffolding or an attainable underlying purpose for use of that resource, teachers can successfully use authentic resources with all students.

For example, students in a Novice level class can study a song in the target language (TL), but the desired end result may not be that they understand every word of the song. Maybe the goal is for them to understand just one line. Or maybe the song is secondary because it has a great video that the teacher can use as a Movie Talk. In addition, authentic resources like works of art, wordless books, or photographs (that is to say, resources without language) can also be used in Novice classes. Why hadn’t I thought about that before?

4. While teaching culture is an important component of second language teaching, it can be taught in the target language (TL) at all levels. Many teachers talk about culture in the students’ native language because they say that students don’t possess the appropriate language skills to discuss cultural topics in the TL. But if you look at ACTFL’s Intercultural Competency expectations, you will find that, even at the Intermediate level, students are not expected to have in-depth, detailed knowledge of cultural products or practices. Novices are only expected to identify products and practices, which means that while they might be expected to know that September 16th is Mexican Independence Day and that it is a national holiday, they should not be expected to know much more than that. At the Intermediate level, students would be expected to know enough facts about Mexican Independence Day that they would be able to compare it with Independence Day in their home country. It’s only at the advanced level that students are expected to be able to speak at length and with great detail about cultural products or practices. So since expectations are so low (and, in my opinion, completely realistic for the students’ ability level), it is completely possible for students to learn about a certain cultural product or practice in the TL.

5. Technology is a nice tool to use in a second language classroom, but it is not essential. This year I incorporated a lot of technology into my classroom instruction, such as Quizlet, Kahoot, Gimkit, Charlala, Wheel Decide, and Plickers. What I learned was that, although my students enjoyed the novelty associated with using them, they didn’t really add anything to my classroom instruction that I felt I couldn’t live without. If I ever have an administrator that wants to see me use technology during an observation, I will make sure to use one of the tools listed above. I’ll also use one of these tech tools on a day when half the class is on a field trip or right before a vacation. But on a regular basis, I will not use a technology just for the sake of using technology.

6. When it comes to curriculum, less is more. Lance Piantaggini has a curriculum document on his website that I found very beneficial. Basically, he structures his curriculum around two essential questions (“Who am I?” and “Who are the speakers of the TL?”) and a list of high-frequency verbs called the Super Seven (and, once students have mastered those, the Sweet Sixteen. That’s it.

It probably doesn’t sound like much, but when you brainstorm all the possible answers to those two questions, you will find that almost anything you want to or are obligated to teach is an appropriate response to those two essential questions. And while teaching only seven (or sixteen) verbs doesn’t sound like a lot, it is a lot more when you factor in all the different tenses (When teaching in a comprehensible input classroom, teachers are encouraged to use any and all tenses necessary to make their messages meaning and comprehensible). And as you continue to use those high-frequency verbs, you will just naturally include other vocabulary that one would naturally use with those verbs (articles, adjectives, prepositions, common nouns, and so on).

As you embark on your summer break, I encourage you to reflect on what you have learned this year. How will what you have learned about yourself this year guide and improve your practice next year? Let me know.

What’s In a Name?

For the first 20+ years of my teaching career (when I was a textbook-based, traditional drill and kill teacher), I always gave students a French or Spanish name when they entered my first-year language classes, which would stay with them throughout their second language study at our school. Recently, however, I have abandoned this practice. Reasons why are described below.

Over the years I’ve had more Pablos, Marías, Moniques, and Pierres than I can shake a stick at. Names were given on the first day of class, which was also when students made name tags with their new names on it. As my students and I went through our introductory classes together, I often would pick up a student’s name tag and use it during a pronunciation lesson or conversation about accent marks. It was great to talk about the Spanish pronunciation of the letter j, for example, and then go pick up the name tag of the kid who chose the name “José” to illustrate my point.

In addition, most of my students loved having a French or Spanish name. Some students would call each other by their Spanish or French name in other classes, and I enjoyed it when students came to my class and told me about how they accidentally wrote their Spanish or French name on a math test. I even had a few students confess that they did not know the real name of some of their classmates and knew them only by the name given to them in my class.

But over the years, I began to reevaluate this practice. First, I started noticing in Spanish class that I had boys fighting over the name “Jesús” just because they thought it was funny to be named after Christ. I also had multiple boys fighting over being called “Juan” so they could make puns like, “I’m Juan in a million.” Other boys wanted to be called “Pablo” in honor of the drug lord Pablo Escobar. Things were no better in French class, where my male students fought over the names with Arabic roots like “Habib” and the female students all wanted the name “Latifah.” I eventually realized that my naming practice was perpetuating negative stereotypes and inadvertently giving students permission to make fun of people from another culture.

In addition, one of my classroom goals was to have students realize that the language they were studying was real and alive, spoken my millions of people all over the globe (This is one of the reasons why the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) advocates using authentic resources in second language classrooms). I didn’t want them to think of Spanish or French as something artificial that they only used when in my classroom.

In his book While We’re On the Topic, Bill VanPatten is adamant that all language used in class be part of authentic communication. This is the reason why he doesn’t have students pretend to be in an airport or restaurant in his classes. By extension, how authentic and real can communication be when someone’s real name is Caleb but classmates are calling him Federico? Not very authentic at all, I think. Over time, it started to seem counterproductive to give students a false identity when I was spending so much time trying to promote the authenticity and the real-world value of studying a second language in my class.

These days, I don’t have nametags to help me illustrate pronunciation or accent usage. My students figure those things out anyway through frequent classroom use. Also, I call everyone in class his or her given name or nickname. If a student has a name that is 100% identical in English (our first language) and Spanish or French (like David in Spanish or Rose in French), I will pronounce that name with an appropriate French or Spanish accent. If students’ names have a Spanish or French translation, I share that with students (“Your name is Michael? In Spanish it would be “Miguel.”) but never address them with it. The boy in Spanish class named Matthew is never “Mateo,” and the girl in French class named Mary is never “Marie.” These days, I’m all about keeping it real! How about you?

Classroom Management, Revisited

Last year I went to a TPRS workshop with Mike Coxon and Craig Sheehy. This was the first time I heard about their classroom management system. Blaine Ray, the creator of TPRS, calls it the Party Points System. The Party Points system awards the class points for staying in the target language (TL) for eight minute segments. The teacher uses a timer and resets the timer every time someone talks in English. If the class is successful in staying in the target language for eight minutes, they get a point. After a certain number of points, the class gets a reward (View this post for more on this system).

I came home from the conference and implemented this system. It worked really well. My problem behaviors decreased dramatically. I ignored colleagues who criticized the system and was able to make it to the end of the year with hardly any discipline issues at all. Life was good.

At the National TPRS conference in Boston over the summer, I heard again from Blaine about how awesome the Party Points System was. When the new school year started, I made plans to implement Mike and Craig’s reward system again. As far as I was concerned, it was foolproof, right?

Nope.

I have one class this year that has been difficult since our first week back in August. The class is very large (27 students), which makes classroom management difficult. I also have a large number of boys in the class who don’t take class seriously. I abandoned the Party Points System with them because I got nowhere. They were so bad that they often earned zero points in one 45-minute class. The well-behaved students were frustrated by those who constantly blurted in English and spent class socializing, and the ones who caused the problems stopped caring about a reward. As far as they were concerned, if they were never going to earn any points, why bother trying to behave? It was a lost cause.

So I implemented the “hard reset.” I spoke to the class about their behavior, explained why I was abandoning the point system, and returned to my old-school management system à la Ben Slavic. It’s only been a few days since the switch, but things are a little better. My students aren’t little angels, but the threat of calling home is keeping most of them in line. The moral of the story, then, is that no classroom management system is perfect. Some kids just naturally will misbehave, and it’s up to the teacher to figure out how to manage them in the most effective way possible. And considering that I have been teaching for over 20 years, I should have known that.

Authentic Resources

World languages conferences are traditionally held in the fall, which is why October has been a very busy month for me. Three weeks ago I helped organize and also presented at a small local conference, and a few days ago I attended a larger conference nearby. At both conferences, authentic resources were a popular topic of discussion.

I must confess that I have never been a fan of using authentic resources in my language classes, mainly because I felt that most of them were too complex for my novice students to understand and appreciate. In addition, I felt that most of the language in authentic resources was not very practical, and it was more important that students be exposed to more high-frequency words. But somehow I found myself assigned the task of giving a presentation about authentic resources at my local conference, and I have slightly changed my tune.

The reasons for this change are varied. First of all, due to the advent of the Internet, it is super easy to find many different, appropriate types of authentic resources, ranging from infographics, commercials, and recipes to music videos, short stories, and full length television shows and movies. Many Spanish teachers have written extensively about using Spanish television shows like Gran Hotel or El Internado, and many French teachers enjoy adding lessons based on music videos to their class.

Second, authentic resources are a great way to learn about the culture of the language we teach. Even though I have taught Spanish for years, I didn’t learn about el Ratoncito Pérez (the equivalent to the tooth fairy in Spain) until I watched a TV show where two little girls talked about losing teeth. In addition, it was through the same TV show that I realized that even though “Felicidades” and “Enhorabuena” both translate to “Congratulations” in English, they  aren’t generally used for the same occasions (Traditionally, “Enhorabuena” is for something that only happens once or twice in a lifetime, like a wedding, job promotion, or graduation, and “Felicidades” is for things that happen more often, like a birthday or a good grade on something).

Finally, the third reason I have changed my mind about authentic resources is that I came to the realization that students don’t have to understand every single word of the resource in order to have a meaningful experience with it. In addition, I can use the authentic resources to introduce and reinforce some high frequency vocabulary. Here are the steps I take when I decide to use an authentic resource.

Step 1: I choose an authentic resource that I want to use. I usually choose an authentic resource because it relates to a topic I am talking about in class. So I may find an infographic about eating habits during conversations about food or a commercial about Christmas when I talk about holidays.

Step 2: I ensure that the authentic resource is appropriate for my students. I make sure the language is not too complex and that the resource is both age and culturally appropriate.

Step 3: I determine my main goal for using the authentic resource. As I mentioned earlier, one of the reasons I used to shy away from using authentic resources was because I thought my students had to understand every word of the resource in order for it to be valuable. I have since realized that students understanding every single word doesn’t have to be the main goal. For example, when I used the Jean de la Fontaine fable “Le Corbeau et le Renard,” my main goal was to use it as a medium to teach some descriptive adjectives and other high frequency words. As far as the fable itself, I wanted students to only be familiar with the general plot and moral of the story.

Step 4: I pick out the necessary structures and/or cultural references my students need to understand the authentic resources. For example, for this Tapsin commerical, I make sure students know about the history of the Ekeko and use it to teach some vocabulary that has to do with being sick (thanks to Kara Jacobs for showing me this commercial in the first place).

Step 5: I preteach those necessary structures and/or cultural references. I always preteach these concepts through context and not as isolated words, because students are more likely to remember the concepts in a context than in isolation. I use Total Physical Response, Movie Talks, and other techniques that are designed to deliver a lot of comprehensible input (CI).

Step 6: I introduce the authentic resource. After preteaching structures in context for this McDonald’s commercial in Spanish (including the use of this infographic about levying taxes on soft drinks in Mexico), I was ready to show students the commercial itself and talk about it.

Step 7 (Optional): Assess or do a final wrap-up activity. I stay away from traditional vocabulary tests, but I might ask students to retell the main idea of the fable/video/story that we just talked about or ask students to create something original with the new structures we used.

The beauty of breaking down the authentic resource step by step is that I have a flexible process that I can follow. Depending on the size and complexity of the resource, each step I take care be very short and quick for a resource like an infographic or an advertisement or take a while for something longer like a video clip or a song. Give it a try!

Special Person Interviews

I have written before about Special Person Interviews (I have mentioned this activity here and also here. Resources for Special Person Interviews can be found here and here.). I love this activity because it puts the spotlight on the students and is because it is so versatile. I plan to incorporate this activity in my first-year class this year.

Here is the procedure I followed last year;

  1. Students filled out a questionnaire about themselves either in class or at home.
  2. One by one, students came to the front of the room and answered the questions on their questionnaire using either the questionnaire or a projected PowerPoint as support. While the student was speaking, a class artist drew a picture representing what the student being interviewed said.
  3. The following day in class, the artist shared the drawing. This was The Big Reveal. I then used this drawing as a way to review what we learned about the student the day before.
  4. After four interviews, I compiled a sheet of sentences about the four interviewed students (such as “This person has two dogs,” or “This person celebrates her birthday in May”) and had students fill in the name of the student being described. Students then took the paper home to study.
  5. I gave a quiz where students had to write five sentences about each student with facts they had learned during the interview (I graded the quiz on content only and took points off for accuracy only if I couldn’t understand the sentence).

This year I have changed my procedure slightly.

  1. I will still give students a questionnaire to fill out about themselves, but it is not as long as the form I used last year (This year’s form is single-sided, where last year’s form was double-sided. The interviews were just getting too long to keep students’ attention.).
  2. Students are still going to come up to the front of the room for their interviews and I will continue to employ a class artist to draw. But I also will have a note taker, who will have to fill in a sheet about the student being interviewed. I am also going to have a data collector, who will be responsible for keeping track of information such as how many students have birthdays in what month, how many students are from out-of-state, and other information on a tally sheet.
  3. Students will take a quick true/false quiz once the interview is over (I didn’t do this last year and I think students tuned out as a result).
  4. The following day, students will read a paragraph about the special person that I will write using information provided by the note taker (Thanks to my friend Rachel for the idea to do this). I will have students read the paragraph with me and then the artist will share the drawing.

Since I have shortened the interview this year, I can reserve the more complicated questions for next year in case I want to do this activity again. I’m not sure if I will, however, because it may not be as compelling the second time as I am hoping it will be the first time. I’ll just have to wait and see. And finally, let me give a shout-out to the original creator of Special Person Interviews, Bryce Hedstrom. This is such an awesome activity! Thanks for everything, Bryce!

Beginning of the Year Reflections

I’ve been back to school for about three weeks now, teaching French and Spanish at the middle school level. Here are some of my reflections so far.

1. Concentrating on classroom management at first was definitely the right thing to do. As I mentioned in a previous post, I decided that getting control of student behavior and establishing routines at the beginning of the school year would be my main goal, which I have done by assigning class jobs and using a classroom management system that is a combination of what Annabelle Allen and Ben Slavic do in their classes.

Implementing class jobs has proven to be a great way to streamline activity in my classroom. My fifth grade class is very well trained, and most students do their job without needing to be prompted. My seventh and eighth grade classes still need reminders, but they are coming along. I have assigned a few jobs and will continue to appoint more helpers in class as the year goes on. As of right now, I have people who keep my water bottle full, people who pass things out, people who collect things, and question word keepers (these are the people who call out an English translation when I say a question word in French or Spanish). Soon I will add absent student helper, who will be responsible for compiling a report of class activity when a student is absent, class artists, and class note taker. As I have mentioned previously, having student jobs generates a feeling of community and keeps wiggly kids busy. If you are interested in adding student jobs to your class, I recommend you visit either Bryce Hedstrom’s blog or purchase Ben Slavic’s Big CI Book for more information and ideas.

I have been keeping a handle on classroom behavior in two ways. First of all, I am keeping score each class. I reward points to students for doing great things and give points to myself for rule infractions. At the end of class, I record who “won” by keeping a running tally. My classes know that they will get a reward like a party or game day when they have amassed a total of ten points. For my younger students, this has proven to be enough incentive to get the class to behave.

My seventh and eighth graders, however, are too cool for school and need more than just the possibility of a reward to get them to behave. So while I still have a party points system like I have with my younger students, I also hold them accountable for their behavior through the use of the Interpersonal Communication Skills rubric, which is available in Ben Slavic and Tina Hargarden’s book, A Natural Approach to the Year.

I periodically ask students to fill out a rubric in which they self-assess their class engagement. I review each student’s rubric and, if necessary, I adjust the score and explain why. I then notify the parent or guardian of any student who scores a C or lower on the rubric and offer suggestions about what the student can do to improve their grade next time. I plan to have students fill out this rubric four times during the semester and will be entered in my grade book as a summative assessment. And while we’re speaking of grades…

2. After a bit of a struggle, I have finally established a grading system. Lance Piantaggini presented about his grading system at the National TPRS conference this summer. You can read about his system here. Students in Lance’s class are graded solely on their classroom engagement, which they self-assess. In my classes, the students’ quarter grade is based on 60% student engagement, which is based on scores on the Interpersonal Communication Skills rubric, and 40% traditional measures like classwork, homework, timed writings, and quick quizzes.

3. I have established an easy and flexible first-year curriculum. This summer, I read an online post that Mike Peto wrote about curriculum and explored some of the curriculum documents that Lance Piantaggini has on his website. These two resources helped me set up a framework for the curriculum in my own class.

Both Mike and Lance talk about building a curriculum based on high-frequency verbs, and I have followed their lead by doing the same in my classes. In my first-year French class, I am starting off the year by focusing on est (is), (has), va (goes), and aime (likes). While at first I will concentrate on third person singular forms, over time I will start to include other conjugations. All the activities I do are designed to reinforce those four verbs, which naturally lend themselves to include common, thematic vocabulary for a first-year classroom such as words to describe family, food, school, descriptive adjectives, and common leisure activities when used in conversation. As the year progresses, I will then add other high-frequency verbs like veut (wants), peut (can) and doit (must). These verbs are also very practical for culture study as well and will be used to talk about topics such as the French-speaking world and school in France.

4. I have established some professional development goals for myself. I truly believe that we as language educators need to continue to develop our skills and grow as teachers in order to be effective in our classrooms. So here are some goals I have set for myself this year.

This year I plan to:

  • continue to read about teaching with comprehensible input (CI) and new CI teaching approaches,
  • start regularly doing Storyasking in class again,
  • attempt to do a lesson based on a One Word Image (OWI),
  • record myself teaching so I can review it and improve my instruction and so I can share it with others.

I hope you are all having a good start to your school year. What goals do you have this year?

Starting Off the Year with Comprehensible Input

It’s August, so many teachers who would like to begin teaching with a comprehensible input (CI) approach have started posting in CI Facebook groups asking about how they should start off the year. That’s a pretty daunting question, because many of them (like me back in the day) are used to having a textbook. As textbook teachers, most of us used to start the year by doing what was on page 1 of our textbook and then just taught whatever came next in the book as the year progressed. But once teachers start teaching with CI, we abandon the textbook, which may leave many of us floundering over what to plan for our classes. So for what it’s worth, I’m going to tell you in this post how I plan to start off my year in my middle school Spanish French, and ESL classes. If you teach another language or another level, don’t stop reading just yet, because nothing I do is language or level specific. I did the same thing when I taught high school, and I have seen other teachers use similar approaches in Mandarin, Russian, and German classes.

At the beginning of the year, the first thing all teachers should do in any discipline is set expectations. I have spent the summer reading a lot of books about education. Every one of them, from Harry and Rosemary Wong’s The First Days of School, which applies to all levels and all disciplines, to Ben Slavic and Tina Hargarden’s CI language instruction specific A Natural Approach to the Year, agrees that the teacher’s most important job at the beginning of the school year is to establish behavior guidelines and class routines. In other words, you need to train your kids to act in such a way that it creates an atmosphere where you can easily provide them with the input they need to acquire language.

While I do have actual content that I would like to teach in class at the beginning of the year, completing the lessons I have planned is secondary to getting my students to meet these two goals. Without effective control of the classroom, your troublemakers will begin to take over. They will not acquire language because they will be too busy causing disruptions in the class, and the rest of your class will not acquire as much language as they should because they will have heightened negative emotions like frustration and anxiety caused by the classroom disruptions.

If you are interested in reading more about classroom management, read this post, where I summarize three classroom management systems that other CI teachers have spoken and written about and this post, where I talk about other facets of classroom management. You may also want to read this post by Cécile Lainé, who had some classroom management issues with one of her French classes last year and talks about how she adressed them. And finally, you might want to read this post by Bryce Hedstrom, a retired Spanish teacher, who writes about how negative behaviors impede language acquisition and what behaviors he absolutely never allowed in his classrooms.

Helping students adapt to class routine goes hand and hand with managing student behavior. Each classroom is different and has its  own set of routines, but mine involve how students should enter the classroom (with a password, which I describe below), what students should do when they enter the classroom (some of my students have jobs that they must do when they get to class, such as returning corrected papers or writing our class agenda on the board), and what activities they should expect that we will begin class with. I try to have a different activity every day, and over time students can come to expect that we will start class with a certain type of activity for each specific day. For example, on Mondays, I start class with Free Voluntary Reading (Called Leamos los Lunes in Spanish class and Le Lundi On Lit in French class) and on Friday I show a short video (Video Viernes or Vidéo Vendredi). Magister P. takes routines one step further with this two-week routine.

Capture

Other teachers prefer to start class with the same activity every day.  Here is a post by Chris Stolz about what his daily, opening activity is in his Spanish classes. I don’t think having the same or different daily routines is really all that important. All that is important is that the routine is in place. It is comforting to some students to know what to expect when class begins, and if students know what is expected, teachers will be able to spend less time directing students to get to work.

Besides getting classroom management and routines under control, the other goal of the beginning of the year is to begin to establish community. Whatever activities I do in class have the same purpose, which is to help me get to know my students, help them get to know me, and establish a relationship between us. I have three activities that I use to do this, which are Password, Card Talk, and Special Person Interviews. Card Talk is a Ben Slavic activity that used to be called Circling with Balls. He and Tina Hargarden suggest using this activity to start the year in their book A Natural Approach to the Year as well. Password and Special Person Interviews are two activities originated by Bryce Hedstrom.

The Password activity involves the teacher meeting students at the door and engaging with each of them before they enter the classroom. Each student must say a special word or phrase in the target language (TL), which is the password, to enter the room. I post my password outside my front door for student reference and make sure to maintain eye contact and smile during each exchange (I know of male teachers who also require students to shake the teacher’s hand along with saying the password, but I don’t do that because it doesn’t feel natural for me). Last year when I started doing passwords I had my students say a phrase in French before they entered the room, such as “Je n’ai pas de crayon (I don’t have a pencil)” but I didn’t use the password in any activity that we did during class. I think this was a mistake because very few of my students retained the password for very long once we switched to a new password. I will be sure to include our passwords in other class activities to increase the likelihood that students will retain them. If you would like to learn more about Passwords, Bryce has this book available for Spanish teachers that is sale through Teacher’s Discovery or on his website.

What I like about using passwords is that it gives me the chance to connect with each student individually. I have some students who are very shy. Sometimes our password exchange is the only chance I get to talk to them and hear them talk to me. It is my hope that this quick conversation with me will give them the confidence to start speaking in class.

Once students have entered the classroom by saying the password, we will move on to greetings, take care of school business, and move on to Card Talk. To do Card Talk, students draw a picture or pictures on a card that the teacher can then use to ask questions. So, for example, if students are asked to draw something they like to play and any pets they have at home, the teacher can then use that to ask questions about what a student likes (or doesn’t like) to play and what pets s/he has (or doesn’t have) at home. I usually start with Yes-No questions and then progress to Either-Or questions before I move on to questions with an interrogative (You can read this post for more information about questioning in a CI class). This activity takes practically no time to prepare and can be done for multiple classes. I have been known to do Card Talk every day for the first month of school for about five to ten minutes or so (And you don’t have to only do Card Talk at the beginning of the year. Lance Piantaggini writes in this post that Card Talk is also a good activity to do after a vacation as a warm-up to reinforce class routines). If you would like more information about Card Talk or want to see it in action, Ben Slavic has a lot of information about it on his website.

Last year I did Card Talk on and off for about three weeks, but there is no set amount of time that you should do it. If it’s still interesting, keep doing it. If it gets boring, stop and do something else. This year when Card Talk gets boring I plan to ask students to write sentences together with me on a PowerPoint about our class, one student per slide. Then I will let each student choose a picture for his or her slide and print the whole thing out and make a class book. This is a nice extension of Card Talk that helps students make connections between the written and spoken language (BTW, if you teach a language with a different alphabet like Russian or Greek or a language with characters like Mandarin to students whose first language uses a Roman alphabet, I don’t see anything wrong with using the Roman alphabet initially for this activity, because you can then go back and rewrite it with your language’s alphabet or characters later on once you teach them).

Another great activity that can help teachers get to know their students is the Special Person Interview. It involves asking a student a series of questions about him or herself in front of the class. You can read more about it in this post. This activity is similar to Card Talk because it involves learning personal information about students, but the difference is that, unlike Card Talk, you ask only one student questions about him or herself. If you are a Spanish teacher, you can see questionnaire that I used for my Special Person Interviews with my third-year students on my Spanish Resources page. The questionnaire I used with my first-year French students can be found on my French Resources page.

What I like about Special Person Interviews is that it gives each student some positive, personal attention. For some students, this may be the only positive attention they get all day. This activity also helps both the class and me learn new information about each student. I especially like it when students who have known each other since kindergarten learn knew things about their friends.

Last year I did Card Talk in class for a few weeks, where I asked questions about something students liked to play and what pets they had. Then I did this Movie Talk as a change of pace before I started my Special Person Interviews. Since the class and I had spent so much time talking about our pets, doing a Movie Talk about someone else’s pet was a good way to use familiar vocabulary in a new way. The reason why I didn’t want to go right into Special Person Interviews after Card Talk is because I was afraid that these two activities were too similar to do back to back and felt that students would benefit from doing something completely different.

In conclusion, I already have a plan for my first two months or so of class, which is to start each day with a specific warm-up activity for each day of the week to establish class routines and then continue with Card Talk, which I will use as a vehicle to set my behavior expectations. When I feel that students are ready to move on, I will do the Movie Talk I talked about above and then move on to Special Person Interviews. And then what? With any luck, they will be ready to read their first novel. I’ll let you know!